One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.
At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.
See also: Comparing regions within specific categories of costs, the EIU notes that Asian cities are the most expensive for grocery shopping, with Seoul in South Korea the priciest for food. European cities are the most expensive in terms of recreation and entertainment.
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1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records
The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 昆明新房售价步入上升期 部分二手房市场受抑 in America.
This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.
The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.
PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.
PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.
3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world
Lei Jun, founder and chairman of Chinese smartphone giant Xiaomi Corp, agreed, describing the win as a breakthrough in artificial intelligence.
Jiang Yiyi at the China Tourism Academy suggests China adopt a long-term national plan to improve the country's image and investment in inbound tourism to attract more visitors.
Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.
4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders
The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.
Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.
5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything
XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.
6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security
Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 2019年一季度40城新房成交面积同比下降4% to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.
Type A and Type B personality theory describes Type A individuals as outgoing, ambitious, rigidly organized, highly status-conscious, sensitive, impatient, anxious, proactive, and concerned with time management.
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Shanghai, by comparison, trades on 12.6 times earnings. This reflects a wide (37 per cent) spread between the Shanghai’s A shares and the H-share equivalents. Before the ups and downs of 2015 it was more usually below 20 per cent, hinting at significant upside to the H-share index. True, it does not represent the best of China’s “new economy”, being heavily skewed towards banks in particular. Growth forecasts are moribund. Yet with expectations already so dire, it is hard to see how they can worsen. Even property — beset with overcapacity — has been pulling out of its slump.
The Datafolha poll was based on interviews with 693 fans at the Mineirao stadium in Belo Horizonte and had a statistical margin of error of 4 percentage points.
The Meyerowitz Stories
Romance was different then - with no computers, letter writing was the only way to stay in touch and remains more romantic than emails, he said.
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7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed
The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.
Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.
The consequences are more parochial than those of Chinese data distortion. British law requires the ONS to produce the RPI and, given that it refuses to improve the measure, its fiddling affects hundreds of billions of pounds of contracts which continue to be linked to the RPI.
Peace and love for you at New Year from all your students.
To start with, a year before the first iPhone was released, LG had introduced a full touchscreen phone. Even that was not the first, though. The world's first touchscreen phone was IBM's Simon, which was released in 1992. And touchscreen technology even predates the Simon. The first touchscreen device was a tablet made by E.A. Johnson in 1965 that was used by air traffic controllers until 1995. Bent Stumpe and Frank Beck made the first capacitive touchscreen in the early '70s. Unlike Johnson's tablet, it could not be pressed with the fingers. Instead, it required a stylus. In 1971, Samuel Hurst developed the first resistive touchscreen, which he called the "elograph." It responded to the fingers as well as a stylus. In 1985, HP invented the world's first touchscreen computer, called the HP-150. In 1993, Apple also released its first touchscreen device—the Newton Personal Digital Assistant. The product was a flop, recording low sales.
In July, the government made the first stab at regulating internet finance when 10 agencies, including the central bank, the banking regulator and the securities regulator jointly issued guidelines that provide an official definition of “internet finance” and specify which agencies are responsible for regulating which types of internet financial institutions.
8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links
When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.
This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."
9. NSA collects text messages
The central government is planning to establish a bond market connect between the mainland and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region on a trial basis this year, allowing for the first time overseas capital to access mainland bond markets from overseas. Hong Kong will be the first to benefit from such an arrangement
— James Ball (@jamesrbuk) January 16, 2014
Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.
10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries
The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.