One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.
At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.
See also: 《东方快车谋杀案》
As supporters kept streaming toward the Capitol building, one yelled out, “Today, a new Puerto Rico begins!” to the cheers of others, including those holding U.S. flags.
1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records
The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 北京市人力社保局：技能提升补贴申领条件放宽 in America.
This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.
The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.
PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.
PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.
3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world
1.Provide strong leadership and a clear vision
你可能觉得我们对于列清单的爱好是从“十诫”继承而来，但安伯托·艾柯( Umberto Eco)的说法却正相反，“清单是文化的起源”，他写过一本书，《无限的清单》(The Infinity of Lists)，书中在讨论自己熟悉的东西时这样说道。而且，文化希望“让无限变得可以理解”，并且“创造秩序——不是永远如此，但通常都是这样”，所以才有了荷马在《伊利亚特》中的人名清单，以及你冰箱上贴着的，永远做不完的家务清单。“我们喜欢清单，因为我们不想死，”艾柯还说，这可能是对“清单体”(listicle)的最佳解释了。
v. 构成，把 ...
Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.
4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders
First, says Tom Kozenski, a supply-chain expert at consulting and training firm RedPrairie, most people still think of logistics -- if they think of it at all -- as a "non-sexy" field centered on boring, low-paid warehouse work.
Some of them still give high return to their shareholders. China Merchants Bank is generous; its dividend reached 30.16% of its net profits.
The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.
Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.
5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything
XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.
6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security
Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 35城房贷利率西安倒数第四 房奴感慨多掏首付 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.
Despite the confusion, executive producer Ed Razek has commended the Chinese partners as “wonderful and enthusiastic hosts.”
You don't know how to fix the holes in our ozone layer. You don't know how to bring salmon back up a dead stream. You don't know how to bring back an animal now extinct.And you can't bring back forests that once grew where there is now desert. If you don't know how to fix it, please stop breaking it! 您不知道怎么去修补大气的臭氧空洞，您也不知道怎么去从死亡的河流中拯救鱼类，您更不知道如何把灭绝的动物复苏，您也不能把沙漠中从前完整的森林带回来。如果您不知道如何拯救，那么请您停止破坏吧！
Yu Xiuhua, born with cerebral palsy, lived a quiet village life. She is now a literary sensation whose vivid, erotic poems are “stained with blood.”
The University of Tokyo (22nd) and Kyoto University (35th) have maintained their positions as the leading universities in Asia.
Foreign investment in emerging markets has dropped to the lowest level since the financial crisis as investors are braced for the fallout of the first US interest rate rise in nearly a decade.
That figure is more than two times the city's population of about 10 million.
7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed
The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.
Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.
8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links
When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.
This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."
9. NSA collects text messages
Meanwhile, in recent months mainland investors have been rapidly owning equity trading accounts and putting money into the stock market. The Shanghai Composite has become the region's best performing index, rising nearly 45 per cent year to date.
— James Ball (@jamesrbuk) January 16, 2014
Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.
10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries
The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.
The seven large brick tombs were likelyconstructed for people of wealth, the researchers said.