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深圳楼市新政:未来政策性住房将达60%

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 北京成立领导小组重点整治房产乱象 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

解析木门行业现状 要走“中式”木门发展道路

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

斯德哥尔摩经济学院(Stockholm School of Economics)是今年排行榜上的大赢家,该学校的排名攀升16个位次,排在第28位,不仅排名晋升速度为年度最快,而且扭转了去年排名下滑11位的局面。
Matthew McConaughey and Jared Leto both won for their startlingly gaunt performances in the Texas HIV drama 'Dallas Buyers Club.' Leonardo DiCaprio, a nine-time Golden Globe nominee, won his second Globe for best actor in a comedy for his uninhibited work in 'The Wolf of Wall Street.' He thanked director Martin Scorsese for his mentorship ('Wolf' is their fifth film together) and for 'allowing me to stalk you to make this movie.'
Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri is a darkly comic drama from Academy Award winner Martin McDonagh.
Rios is no stranger to hard work. She moved to the U.S. from El Salvador when she was a child. She graduated at the top of her high school class and raised a family while putting herself through college. She was not intimidated when she started Nation Waste Inc. At just 22, months after graduating from the University of Houston, she took out loans and purchased two trucks, jumping into the male-dominated waste-removal industry. Today, her Houston-based company has 24 full-time employees. "It is pretty amazing when I look back and see, I started as a little girl entering the United States with my parents and now I am truly living the American dream," says Rios.
v. 强调,着重
But many foresee an economic collapse, arguing that a prolonged eurozone crisis coupled with a property bubble could render vast swaths of Chinese industry unprofitable. This would reveal hidden financial vulnerabilities and feed a downward spiral. Others believe that Beijing has ample resources to avoid a crisis, but argue that, with a growth model based on infrastructure and land sales, and with exchange and interest rates rigidly controlled, it may not have all the necessary tools at its disposal.
土耳其部长们近来一直在欧洲各地的土耳其社区举行集会,以争取海外土耳其人对埃尔多安发起的宪法改革的支持——土耳其将于下个月就修宪举行公投。

The programme is ranked second for career progress three years after graduation. Tiemba’s graduates number only about 250 so far, making them an elite group.— LaurentOrtmans
他做出了不从事企业战略工作的战略性转变,尽管他自己的学校曾经建议他别从事教育方面的职业,虽然他担任过私人教师。
Here's a look into social media's crystal ball for 2014. Will Snapchat catch fire? Will those annoying Promoted Tweets keep invading your Twitter stream? Will your boss finally learn to tweet? These five trends are poised to shake up the industry and the way we use social media in 2014:
One of the more notorious incidents was when Zhu Ling, a student at the prestigious Tsinghua University, was paralyzed when her roommate allegedly poisoned her with thallium in 1994.
The Mensa Supervised IQ Test can only be taken by children aged over ten-and-a-half and consists of two separate industry-standard assessments. One measures mainly verbal reasoning skills and the other, which includes diagrams and images, assesses visual and spatial logic. And Nishi, from Audenshaw in Tameside, scored the highest possible mark of 162 in the first test – known as the Cattell III B score. She scored 142 in the second element, the Culture Fare Scale, with the results putting her in the top one per cent of the nation in terms of IQ. Anyone scoring a percentile of two in any Mensa test is admitted to the society.

Footnotes

  • 惊爆!河北灵寿百余石材企业大肆排污民怨沸腾
  • This figure marks the highest rate of growth since 2011. As the total annual box office in China five years ago was only 10 billion yuan.

It was last above 50 - the threshold separating contraction from expansion - in February.
单词stroke 联想记忆:
从校友达到目标的程度来说,伦敦商学院课程的排名一直领先。一位2010届MBA毕业生在回应英国《金融时报》的调查时表示:“凭借我找到的工作,我不仅实现了自己设定的目标,还超出了这些目标。”
在中国,微信还吸引了越来越多的高端用户。腾讯过去在这个群体当中并没有多高的份额。
美国人:对于你们来说,干脆装成是加拿大人好了。英国人很难判断你们之间的区别,这样你们就可以避免卷入到关于死刑的尴尬谈话中了。
If the oldest man ever elected president can “tweet like a kindergartner,” why not flip the script and see if a youngster can be elected to office and govern wisely?

市民对以房养老认同度不高 专家称更适合小众

References

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